Arduino Amiga Floppy Disk Reader/Writer

Open Source and Free! - by Robert Smith

The Story So Far

Below is a description and log of how I created this solution:


My Amiga Background

I owe my career to the Amiga, specifically the A500+ that my parents purchased for me for Christmas at the age of 10. At first I played the games, but after a while I started getting curious about what else it could do. I played with the Deluxe Paint III and learnt about Workbench.

The Amiga 500 Plus:

Every month I purchased the popular Amiga Format magazine. One month had a free copy of AMOS. I entered the Amiga Format Write A Game In AMOS competition when AMOS Professional was put on a coverdisk later, and was one of the 12 (I think) winners with In The Pipe Line. You really had to chase them for prizes though!

AMOS - The Creator!:

Moving on, I used it as part of my GCSEs and A-Level projects (thanks to Highspeed Pascal, which was compatible with Turbo Pascal on the PC)

Anyway, that was a long time ago, and I have boxes of disks, and an A500+ that doesn’t work anymore, so I thought about backing those disks up onto my computer, for both preservation and nostalgia.

The Amiga Forever website has an excellent list of options that include hardware, and abusing two floppy drives in a PC - Sadly none of these were an option with modern hardware, and the KryoFlux/Catweasel controllers are too expensive. I was really surprised that most of it was closed source.

Massively into electronics and having played with Atmel devices (AT89C4051) whilst at University I decided to take a look at the Arduino (credit to GreatScott for the inspiration showing just how easy it is to get started) I wondered if this was possible.

So I Googled for Arduino floppy drive reading code, and after skipping all of the projects that abused the drive to play music, I didn’t really find any solutions. I found a few discussions in a few groups suggesting it wouldn’t be possible. I did find a project based around an FPGA which was very interesting reading, but not the direction I wanted to go, so the only option was to build a solution myself.



When I started this project I hadn’t got a clue how the floppy drive worked, and even less how the data was encoded onto them. The following websites were invaluable in my understanding on what happens and how they work:



Based on the research I now knew theoretically how the data was written to the disk, and how the disk spun.

I began to work out some numbers. Based on the speed the double density disk rotated at (300rpm) and the way the data is stored (80 tracks, 11 sectors per track and 512 bytes per sector, encoded using MFM), to read the data accurately I needed to be able to sample the data at 500Khz; that’s quite fast when you consider the Arduino is only running at 16Mhz.

In the attempts that follow I’m only talking about the Arduino side. Jump to decoding.


Attempt 1:

First I needed to gather the hardware and interface to the floppy drive. The floppy drive I took from an old PC at work, and grabbed its IDE cable at the same time.

Below is a photo of liberated floppy drive from an old PC:

Studying the pinout of the drive I realised I only needed a few of the wires from it, and after looking at the drive I realised it didn't use the 12v input either.

Getting the drive spinning was achieved by selecting the drive and enabling the motor. Moving the head was simple. You set the /DIR pin high or low, and then pulsed the /STEP pin. You could tell if the head had reached track 0 (the first track) by monitoring the /TRK00 pin.

I was curious about the /INDEX pin. This pulses once each rotation. As the Amiga doesn't use this to find the start of the track I didn't need it and could ignore it. After this its just a matter of choosing which side of the disk to read (/SIDE1) and connecting up /RDATA.

With the high data rate requirement my first thought was to find a way to make this less of an issue by trying to reduce the requirements on this rate.

The plan was to use two 8-bit shift registers (SN74HC594N) to reduce the required sampling frequency by a factor of 8. I used was what Ebay called Pro Mini atmega328 Board 5V 16M Arduino Compatible Nano (so I dont know what that is officially, but this does work on the Uno!) to buffer this parallel data and send it to the PC using it’s serial/USART interface. I knew this needed to be running faster than 500Kbaud (with all of the serial overhead involved too).

After ditching the standard Arduino serial library, I was really pleased to find I could configure the USART on the Arduino at uptp 2M baud, and with one of those F2DI break-out boards (ebay called it Basic Breakout Board For FTDI FT232RL USB to Serial IC For Arduino - see below) I could happily and send and receive data at this rate (62.5Khz) but I needed to do this accurately.

The FTDI breakout board that perfectly fits the interface on the Arduino board:

First I used the arduino to setup on of the 8-bit shift registers only one of the 8 bits clocked high. The other received a feed directly from the floppy drive (thus providing serial to parallel conversion).

The folloing is a crazy picture of the breadboard I built this on at the time:

I used one of the Arduinos timers to generate a 500Khz signal on one of its output pins and as the hardware manages this it is very accurate! - Well, my multimeter measured it as exactly 500khz anyway.

The code worked, I clocked in a full 8-bits of data at 62.5khz, leaving the Arduino CPU hardly utilized. However I wasn’t receiving anything meaningful. At this point I realised I needed to take a closer look at the actual data coming out of the floppy drive. So I purchased a cheap old Oscilloscope from Ebay (Gould OS300 20Mhz Oscilloscope) to check out what was going on.

Whilst waiting for the oscilloscope to arrive I decided to try something else.

A fragment of code used to read the data from the shift registers:

void readTrackData() {
    byte op;
    for (int a=0; a<5632; a++) {
        // We'll wait for the "byte" start marker
        while (digitalRead(PIN_BYTE_READ_SIGNAL)==LOW) {};
        // Read the byte
        if (digitalRead(DATA_LOWER_NIBBLE_PB0)==HIGH) op|=1;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_LOWER_NIBBLE_PB1)==HIGH) op|=2;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_LOWER_NIBBLE_PB2)==HIGH) op|=4;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_LOWER_NIBBLE_PB3)==HIGH) op|=8;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_UPPER_NIBBLE_A0)==HIGH) op|=16;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_UPPER_NIBBLE_A1)==HIGH) op|=32;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_UPPER_NIBBLE_A2)==HIGH) op|=64;
        if (digitalRead(DATA_UPPER_NIBBLE_A3)==HIGH) op|=128;

        // Wait for high to drop again 
        while (digitalRead(PIN_BYTE_READ_SIGNAL)==HIGH) {};


Attempt 2:

I decided that the shift registers, whilst a nice idea probably weren’t helping. I was able to easily read 8 bits in one go, but it occurred to me that I couldn’t be sure that all of the bits were clocked in correctly in the first place. Reading the documentation it suggested that the data were more of short pulses rather than highs and lows.

I removed the shift registers and wondered what would happen if I tried to check for a pulse from the drive in an Interrupt (ISR) using the previously setup 500Khz signal. I reconfigured the Arduino to generate the ISR, and after I got passed the issues of the Arduino libraries getting in the way (using the ISR I wanted) I moved to Timer 2.

I wrote a short ISR that would shift left a global single byte by one bit and then if the pin connected to the floppy drive data line was LOW (the pulses are low-going) I would OR a 1 onto it. Every 8 times I did this I wrote the completed byte to the USART.

This didn't go as expected! The Arduino started to behave very erratically and strange. I soon realised the ISR was taking more time to execute than than the time between calls to it. (I could receive a pulse every 2µSec and based on the speed of the Arduino and making a wild assumption that every C instruction translated to 1 clock machine code cycle I realised I could at most have 32 instructions. Sadly most would be more than one instruction, and after Googling I realised the overhead on starting an ISR was massive anyway. Not to mention the digitalRead functions being very slow.

I ditched the digitalRead function in favour of accessing the port pins directly! This still didn’t help and wasn’t fast enough. Not prepared to give up, I shelved this approach and decided to move on and try something else.

At this point the oscilloscope that I purchased arrived, and it worked! A crusty old Oscilloscope that was probably older than me! But still did the job perfectly. (If you don’t know what n Oscilloscope is check out EEVblog #926 - Introduction To The Oscilloscope, and if you're into electronics then I suggest watching a few more and having a browse around the EEVBlog website.

My newly purchased crusty old Oscilloscope (Gould OS300 20Mhz):

After connecting the 500Khz signal to one channel and the output from the floppy drive to another it was obvious something wasn’t right. The 500Khz signal was a perfect square wave using it as a trigger, the floppy data was all over the place. I could see the pulses, but it was more of a blur. Likewise if I triggered from the floppy drive signal, the 500Khz signal square wave signal was all over the place and not in sync with it.

Photos of the traces on the oscilloscope triggering off of the two channels. You cant quite see it, but on the channel not being triggered is thousands of faint ghostly lines:

Individually I could measure pulses from both signals at 500Khz, which didn’t make sense, as if they ere both running at the same speed but won’t trigger so you can see both signals properly then something must be wrong.

After a lot of playing with the trigger levels I managed to work out what was going on. My signal was a perfect 500Khz, but looking at the floppy drive dignal, well they were spaced correctly, but not all the time. Between groups of pulses there was an error drift, ans also gaps in the data that put the signal totally out of sync.

Remembering the previous research, the drive was supposed to rotate at 300rpm, but it might not actually be exactly 300rpm, plus the drive that wrote the data might also not be at exactly 300rpm. Then there is the spacing between sectors and sector gaps. Clearly there was a synchronisation issue, and synchronising the 500Khz signal to the floppy drive at the start of a read wasn’t going to work.

I also discovered that the pulse from the floppy drive was extremely short, although you could modify this by changing the pullup resistor, and if the timing was not exactly right then the Arduino might miss a pulse all together.

When I was at university (University of Leicester) I took a module called embedded system. We studied the Atmel 8051 microcontrollers. One of the projects involved counting pulses from a simulated weather station (rotary encoder). Back then I sampled the pin at regular intervals, but this wasn't very accurate.

The module lecturer, Prof Pont suggested that I should have used the hardware counter features of the device (I didn’t even know it had one the time.)

I checked the datasheet for the ATMega328 and sure enough each of the three timers could be configured to count pulses triggered from an external input. This meant speed was no longer an issue. All I actually needed to know was if a pulse had occured within a 2µSec time window.


Attempt 3:

I adjusted the Arduino sketch to reset the 500khz timer when the first pulse was detected and eack time the 500khz timer overflowed I checked the counter value to see if a pulse had been detected. I then performed the same bit-shifting sequence and every 8 bits wrote out a byte to the USART.

Data was coming in and I started to analyse it on the PC. In the data I started to see what looked like valid data. The odd sync word would appear, or groups of 0xAAAA sequences, but nothing reliable. I knew I was on to something, but was still missing something.


Attempt 4:

I realised that as the data was being read, the data from the drive was probably going out of sync/phase with my 500khz signal. I confirmed this by just reading 20 bytes each time I started reading.

Reading up about how to handle this sync issue I stumbled across the phrase Phase Locked Loop or PLL. In very simple terms, for what we are doing, the phase locked loop would dynamically adjusts the clock frequency (the 500khz) to compensate for frequency drift and variance in the signal.

The resolution on the timer wasn't high enough to vary it by smal enough amounts (eg: 444khz, 470khz, 500khz, 533khz, 571khz etc) and to perform this properly I would probably need the code to run a whole lot faster.

The Arduino timers work by counting upto a predefined number (in this case 16 for 500khz) then they set an overflow register and start again from 0. The actual counter value can be read and written to at any point.

I adjusted the sketch to wait in a loop until the timer overflowed, and when it overflowed I checked for a pulse as before. The difference time time was that when a pulse was detected inside the loop I reset the timer counter value to a pre-defined phase position, effectivly resynchronising the timer with each pulse.

I chose the value I wrote to the timer counter such that it would overflow at 1µSec from the detection pulse (half way) so that next time the timer overflowed the pulse would have been 2µSec appart.

This worked! I was now reading almost perfect data from the disk. I was still getting a lot of checksum errors which was annoying. I resolved most of these by continuously re-reading the same track on the drive until I had all 11 sectors with valid header and data checksums.

I was curious at this point, so I hooked it all back up to the oscilloscope again to see what was going on now, and as I guessed, I could now see both traces as they were both staing in sync with each other:

I would love to see this a little clearer, if anyone wants to donate me a lovely top of the range digital oscilloscope (eg one of them Keysight ones!) I would really appreciate it!


Attempt 5:

I wondered if I could improve on this. Looking at the code, specifically the inner reading loop (see below) I had a while loop waiting for the overflow and then an inner if looking for a pulse to sync to.

A fragment of code used to read the data and sync to it:

register bool done = false;

// Wait for 500khz overflow 
while (!(TIFR2&_BV(TOV2))) {   
    // falling edge detected while waiting for the 500khz pulse.  
    if ((TCNT0) && (!done)) {
        // pulse detected, reset the timer counter to sync with the pulse

        // Wait for the pulse to go high again
        done = true;

// Reset the overflow flag
// Did we detect a pulse from the drive?
if (TCNT0) {                            

I realised that depending on which instruction was being executed in the above loops, the time between pulse detection and writing TCNT2=phase; could change by the time taken to execute a few instructions.

Realising that this may be causing some errors/jitter in the data and also with the above loop it is possible I might actually miss the pulse from the drive (thus missing a re-sync bit) I decided to take trick from one of my earlier attempts, the ISR (interrupt).

I wired the data pulse to a second pin on the Arduino. The data was now connected to the COUNTER0 trigger and now also the INT0 pin. INT0 is one of the highest interrupt priorities so should minimise the delays between trigger and the ISR being called, and as this is the only interrupt I am actually interested in al of the others are disabled.

All the interrupt needed to do was perform the re-sync code above, this changed the code to look like this:

// Wait for 500khz overflow 
while (!(TIFR2&_BV(TOV2))) {}   

// Reset the overflow flag

// Did we detect a pulse from the drive?
if (TCNT0) {                            

The ISR looked like this: (note I didnt use attachInterrupt as this also adds overhead to the call)

volatile byte targetPhase;

ISR (INT0_vect) {

But compiling this produced far too much code to execute fast enough. In fact disassembling the above produced:

push    r1
push    r0
in      r0,     0x3f	; 63
push    r0
eor     r1,     r1
push    r24 
lds     r24,    0x0102	; 0x800102 
sts     0x00B2, r24	; 0x8000b2 <__TEXT_REGION_LENGTH__+0x7e00b2>
pop     r24
pop     r0
out     0x3f,   r0	; 63
pop     r0
pop     r1

By analysing the code I realised there were only a few instructions I actually needed. Noting that the compiler would keep track of any registers I bashed I changed the ISR as follows:

volatile byte targetPhase asm ("targetPhase");

ISR (INT0_vect) {
  asm volatile("lds __tmp_reg__, targetPhase");      
  asm volatile("sts %0, __tmp_reg__" : : "M" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(TCNT2)));

Which disassembled, produced the following instructions:

push	r1
push	r0
in	r0, 0x3f	; 63
push	r0
eor	r1, r1
lds	r0, 0x0102	; 0x800102 
sts	0x00B2, r0	; 0x8000b2 <__TEXT_REGION_LENGTH__+0x7e00b2>
pop	r0
out	0x3f, r0	; 63
pop	r0
pop	r1

Still too many instructions. I noticed that the compiler was adding a lot of extra instructions, that for my application really didnt need to be there. So I looked up the ISR() and stumbled upon a second parameter ISR_NAKED. Adding this would prevent the compiler from adding any special code, but then I would be responsible for maintaining registers, the stack and returning from the interrupt correctly. I also would need to maintain the SREG register, but as none of the commands I needed to call modified it I didn't need to worry about it.

This changed the ISR code to become:

ISR (INT0_vect, ISR_NAKED) {
  asm volatile("push __tmp_reg__");                                         // Preserve the tmp_register
  asm volatile("lds __tmp_reg__, targetPhase");                             // Copy the phase value into the tmp_register
  asm volatile("sts %0, __tmp_reg__" : : "M" (_SFR_MEM_ADDR(TCNT2)));       // Copy the tmp_register into the memory location where TCNT2 is
  asm volatile("pop __tmp_reg__");                                          // Restore the tmp_register
  asm volatile("reti");                                                     // And exit the ISR

Which the compiler converted to:

push	r0
lds	r0, 0x0102	; 0x800102 
sts	0x00B2, r0	; 0x8000b2 <__TEXT_REGION_LENGTH__+0x7e00b2>
pop	r0

Five instructions! Perfect, or at least as fast as it was going to be, theoritically taking 0.3125µSec to execute! This should now mean the re-sync should happen at time-consistant periods after the pulse. Below is a timing diagram of what is going on. This is how you recover data from a serial data feed that doesnt have a clock signal:

This improved the results a little. It’s still not perfect. Some disks read perfectly every time, some disks it takes ages and has to keep retrying. I am unsure if this is because some of the disks have been sitting there for so long that the magnatism has degraded to such a low level that the drives amplifiers can't cope with it. I wondered if this was something to do with the PC floppy disk drive, so I connected this up to an external Amiga floppy disk drive I had, but the results were identical.


Attempt 6:

I wondered if there was anythign else that could be done. Perhapse the signal from the drive was more noisy than I thought it had been. After reading further information I discovered that a 1KOhm pullup resistor was the norm, fed into a Schmitt trigger.

After installing an SN74HCT14N Hex Schmitt Trigger and reconfiguring the sketch to trigger on rising edges instead of falling edges I gave it a try, but it didnt really make any notiable difference. I guess as I was looking for one or more pulses each time this probably absorbed any noise anyway. So we'll stick method Attenmpt 5!

My final breadboard solution looked line this:

Note the wiring on the above is slightly different to the live sketch. I re-ordered some of the Arduino pins to make the circuit diagram easier.


Attempt 7:

I was a little dissatisfied with some of the disks I had not reading. Some times the disks just didn't sit correctly in the floppy drive. I guess the spring on the shutter wasn't helping.

I started looking at detecting if there were any errors in the actual received MFM data from the disk.

From the rules of how MFM encoding works, I realised that a few simple rules could be applied as follows:

Firstly when decoding MFM data I looked to see if there were two '1's in a row. If they were I assumed that the data had got a little blured over time and ignored the second '1'.

With this rule applied, there are literally three situations of 5 bits where errors are left to occur. This would be a new area where I could look to improve the data.

Mostly though I was suprised, there really weren't that many MFM errors detected. I am a little confused why some of the disks won't read when no errors are found.

This is an area for further investigation.



After reading how MFM worked, I wasn’t entirely sure how it aligned correctly.

At first I thought that the drive output 1s and 0s for the on and off bits. This wasn’t the case. The drive outputs a pulse for every phase transition, ie: every time the data went from 0 to 1, or 1 to 0.

After reading this I wondered if I needed to convert this back into 1’s and 0s by feeding it into a flip-flop toggle, or read the data, search for sectors, and if none were found then invert the data and try again!

It turns out this isn’t the case and it’s much simpler. The pulses are actually the RAW MFM data and can be fed straight into the decoding algorithms. Now I understood this I started writing code to scan a buffer from the drive and search for the sync word 0x4489. Surprisingly I found it!

From the research I had conducted, I realised I needed to actually search for 0xAAAAAAAA44894489 (a note from the research also suggested that there were some bugs in early Amiga code that meant that the above sequence wasn’t found. So instead I searched for 0x2AAAAAAA44894489 after ANDing the data with 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF).

As expected I found up to 11 of these on each track corresponding to the actual start of the 11 Amiga sectors. I then started to read the bytes that followed to see if I could decode the sector information.

I took a snippit of code from one of the above references to help with MFM decoding. No point in re-inventing the wheel eh?

After reading the header and data, I tried writing it to disk as an ADF file. The standard ADF file format is very simple. It is literally just the 512 bytes from each sector (from both sides of the disk) written in order. After writing it and trying to open it with ADFOpus and got mixed results, sometimes it opened the file, sometimes it failed. There were obviously errors in the data. I started to look at the checksum fields in the header, rejecting sectors with invalid checksums and repeating reading until I had 11 valid ones.

For some disks this was all 11 on the first read, some took several attempts and different phase values too.

Finally I managed to write valid ADF files. Some disks would take ages, some literally the speed the Amiga would have read them. Not having a working Amiga anymore I couldn’t actually check if these disks read properly normally, they’ve been stored in a box in the attic for years so may well have degraded.


Writing Data - Attempt 1

So after successfully being able to read disks I figured if you want to keep the original physical medium you might want to write disks back again. I figured I'd work this out in reverse, starting with the software (ie: converting the ADF disk files into MFM data for the interface to write somehow)

So I started by adding classes to read an ADF disk, and encode all the sectors as one track. Knowing I could potentially test the data I created by feeding it back into the decoding part, I started work on this. While working on this I decided to try to find out what was wrong with my Amiga. Afterall, I can't test any disks I create if I don't have anything real to test them on.

Taking my A500+ apart I noticed it had suffered one of the most common problems, the clock battery had leaked everywhere. So I desoldered this from the board and set about cleaning the board up. Whilst at it I pulled the entire machine out and set about cleaning up 20 years of dust and grime. I even took the floppy drive apart to clean it.

Whilst cleaning it I decided it was time to get rid of the yellowing, so followed the information about Retr0brite and tried it.

I then checked all of the joints on the main motherboard and found a lose connection by the power connector, a few touchups with the soldering iron and as good as new. I waited until I was happy with the Retr0brite process before reassembling the computer

Meanwhile I continued working on the code for writing disks. I wanted to read the status of the write protect line, but no matter what I set it to it didn't seem to change voltage. So I pulled the drive apart and follwed the traces from the little switches that detect the write protect status to a little IC. At this point I guessed that the output is probably only available when you actually want to write data.

After a lot of experimentation I found that you needed to pull the /WRITE_GATE pin LOW before spinning up the drive to enable writing. At this point you could obtain the write protect status. I also noticed that while the /WRITE_GATE was low the drive didn't switch back off like it used to until that pin had returned to its default HIGH state.

The Amiga would write an entire track in one go. A track in memory is 11*512 bytes (5638 bytes), however, after MFM encoding and putting in correct AmigaDOS format, the track works out as 14848 bytes. Well, theres no way that can fit in the Arduino's 2k of memory, nor its 1k of EEPROM. I needed an alternative method.

I decided I would try to send the data 1 byte at a time in a high priority thread and wait for a response byte from the Arduino before sending the next. I changed the baud rate to 2M to reduce the lag between characters. This meant that it took roughly 5.5uSec to send each character, and 5.5uSec to receive one back. The Arduino would need to write out 8 bits, at 500khz, so would need a new byte every 16uSec. So there should be time, assuming the code loop is tight enough and the operating system doesn't delay the sending and receiving too much.

This was a complete utter failure. The entire read/write cycle took far too long, well beyond one revolution of the disk. The Arduino side was probably fast enough, but the OS wasn't responsive enough. Reading disks works because the OS (Windows in my case) would buffer the data coming in, but writing, Windows would just send it all in one go, but because of the rate I'm sending at is far faster than the Arduino needs it data would be lost. This was why I decided on this two-way acknowledgement process


Writing Data - Attempt 2

Software flow control for this application was just not fast enough. I decided to investigate hardware flow control. I noticed on the FTDI breakout board there are CTS and DTR pin. These stand for Clear To Send and Data Terminal Ready. I noticed that while the breakout board was connected, the Arduino board connected the CTS to GND.

FTDI breakout board with CTS pin bent out and a wire attached

I also didn't know which direction these pins were actually in, but after some experimentation, I found the CTS pin could be signalled from the Arduino and used by the PC to control the flow. Normally this is done using a circular buffer, but in my case I couldn't allow this, so I simply set it to '1' when I don't want data, and '0' while I do.

FTDI breakout board connected to the Arduino on the breadboard

This now meant I could just ask the OS to bulk send the bytes as one chunk, and hope that it was all handled at the kernel level it wouldn't get interrupted.

I had an inner loop that output each bit from the 8 bits but decided it was probably better timing wise to unravel it into 8 sets of commands instead.

This didn't work. If I allowed the code to run without actually running the disk writing part then all bytes were received correctly, with running the code it didn't and bytes being received were being lost.

I suspected that changing the status of the CTX line did't instantly stop the flow of data and the computer may still send a character or two. Possibly by the time I had signalled the CTX line it was already in the process of sending the next character.


Writing Data - Attempt 3

I didn't want to have a serial interrupt as I didn't want any of the writing timings to be distorted. I realised that inbetween writing each bit to the floppy drive there would be a number of CPU cycles sitting in the next while loop. I decided to check between each bit write if another byte had been received since CTX went high and store it.

My theory was that when you raised CTX the computer was probably already in the middle of transmitting the next byte and as you can't stop it mid-stream then it would half after this one. This means I only need to check for one extra byte during the loop and use it if found instead of looking at the serial port again.

So this seemed to work, and the Arduino completed the write without losing any data from the computer. The only questions now was, has it actually written any data, and if so, is any of it valid!

At this point I had only encoded one track, so I decided to run the entire algorithm to encode all 80 tracks. Something strange was happening. The drive head wasn't moving at all. It still did when reading, but not when writing.

I found that in order to move the drive head back and forth you first had to raise the /WRITE GATE pin, I suspected this was required for changing the surface also. Once I added code to do this the drive head moved as expected. This did make sense and would prevent accidental writing of tracks while moving the head around.

So at this point I wrote a disk image out I had created previously, and then tried to read it back. Nothing could be detected!. Either the data I had witten was invalid, or the way I was writing it was wrong.

I decided to feed the encoded MFM sector data that I was creating into my sector decoding algorithm used by the reader to validate that what I was generating was correct ans valid, and it was. Something was obviously wrong with how I was writing the data to the disk.


Writing Data - Attempt 4

As no data was being read correctly I decided try a few different approaches. I wasn't sure if the /WRITE DATA pin should be pulsed (and if so, by how long), toggled or just set to the raw data value. My current implementation pulsed the pin. I hadn't been able to find any information online about how the write pin was physically suppose to be manipulated when writing.

The read head would send us a pulse each time there is a flux reversal. I decided to change the implementation so that WRITE DATA was just set to the value of the bit. That didn't work either. So I changed the code to toggle the current state of the pin. Still no luck.

Clearly one of these approaches must have been the correct one. So I decided to get out the trusty Oscilloscope again to have a look at what was going on. I decided to write the MFM pattern 0xAA to to every byte on a track contineously. 0xAA in binary is B10101010, so this would give me a perfect square wave that I could monitor for the required frequency.

If it didn't see a perfect square wave at the desired frequency then I knew there must be some kind of timing issue.

I hooked up the scope, but was suprised to see the timings were perfect. However, being an old scope I couldn't see more than a few pulses. The scope had this wonderful x10 "mag" mode. When pressed it increased the timebase by 10, but more importantly allowed you to scroll through all of the data much like on a modern digital scope.

Something wasn't correct here. It looked like every 12 bits or so I ended up with a period of just "high".

Either the data I was sending was in some way invalid, or there was something causing a pause in the writing process every 12 bits or so. 12 being a strange number considering there are only 8 bits in a byte.

After thinking about this I wondered if I was back with a flow control issue. The way I had designed the loop was to scoop up any stray extra bytes that were received after we had waited for one. But it wasn't intellegent enough to prevent the wait every other byte. I had two choices, move something into an interrupt, or patch the loop.

I decided to have a go at correcting the way the loop worked first. The issue was as a result of a delay caused by waiting for the next byte from the computer. If we lowered CTX and waited for a byte, by the time we raised CTX again another byte was already on the way.

I change the loop so that when the second byte received had been used the Arduino momentarily pulled CTS low and then high again to allow another character to be sent. This meant on the next loop we would have already received the next byte so no waiting was required.

Testing this produced a perfect square wave:

This meant all of the timing for writing a track was perfect, it was just down to the actual data that was being written. I decided to let this run for a few tracks and sides, and then read it back to see if it had written correctly. I was setting the /WRITE_DATA pin to the corresponding bit value from the data received.

When reading the data back it looked like nothing had been encoded, but then I skipped to the other side of the disk. Sure enough there was my pattern. I didn't know why it had only written to one side of the disk.

After some thinking I started to wonder if the /WRITE GATE pin didn't actually work the way I thought it did. It occured to be that by pulling the pin low it may be enabling the erase head on the drive. If this was the case then I should only do this when I was actually writing or I might end up with noise on the disk as it spins and erases.

I changed all of the code so that the /WRITE GATE was only used when first starting the drive, and later only literally during the write loop. That worked! I was now writing data to both sides of the disk!

So I tried again with a real ADF disk image and let it complete. I then used the reader portion to see if I could read it back. It worked! but for some reason it took quite some time to read this disk back. I wasn't getting any MFM errors but it was struggling to find all of the sectors.

There's were two possabilities for me to look at now, firstly had the data actually written timely enough, and secondly would the disk actually work in a real Amiga!

Too excited with the idea that I might have actually written a disk I booted up the now working A500+ and put the disk in. Moments later the disk started booted, and then displayed the famous checksum error message. So I was writing something valid, but it wasn't consistant.

I decided that unless I could read the data back at a much more accurate rate then writing a disk was pointless.


Reading Data (again)

I wanted to improve the reading quality as I wasn't happy with the current implementation. The current implementation didn't allow enough flexability for the pulses to arrive at slightly odd times. I needed a new approach.

Firstly, I decided I was going to sync the reading to the /INDEX pulse. Not required by the Amiga, but may come in handy later on for me testing writing and reading.

Several people in the comments to the first half of this project suggested that I should be recording the timing between pulses rather than the method that I had implemented. The only issue with this was getting this data to the PC fast enough. If I was to send a byte for each bit then I could easily exceed the maximum 2M baud.

I decided that the best thing to do would be to try to make sense of the data a little. So I decided to let the counter I was using originally to free-run, right up to 255. I then put the code in a loop waiting for a pulse and that this point saw how much time had passed.

In an ideal situation the minimum value this would ever be would be 32 (corresponding to 2uSec). With MFM you could only ever have a maximum of three 0's in a row, so the maximum this value should reach was 128. This meant there were a maximum of 4 possible combinations in a row.

I sampled several disks to see where the majority of these frequencies lay, and the results can be seen below:

Looking at this, I find the majority of the points around a counter of 52, 89 and 120. However these were somewhat specific to my drive and therefor not a good guideline. After some experimentation I used the following formula: value = (COUNTER - 16) / 32. When clipped between 0 and 3 this gave me the output I required. Every 4 of these and I could write a byte out.

It occured to me that because you couldn't have two '1's together in an MFM encoded bit stream I could safely assume anything for the first value was invalid and could be treated as another '01' sequence. The next part was to unpack this data once received by the PC and turn it back into MFM data. This was simple, since 00 couldnt happen, a 01 meant write '01', an 10 meant write '001' and a 11 meant write '0001'. I gave this a try and to my suprise my results were 100% successful. I tried with a few more disks too, 100%! I now had a very reliable disk reader.

With this new approach being a lot more tollerant on the data from the disk I no longer needed any phase analysis or as many retrys. Most of my disks now read perfectly. Some required a few retries, but got there in the end. The last part was to statistically analyse the data and see if it could be repaired, however, 99% of the time bad data coming in was completly unrecognizable and so was little help.


Writing Data - Attempt 5

Now that I could verify what I had written with high accuracy it meant testing the writer would be much easier.

I set about analysing the code to see what was going wrong. I wrote a 0x55 sequence to an entire track and then read it back in. From time to time a bit had shifted in the data coming back meaning there was some kind of timing issue in writing.

It turned out that this was partly due to the way I was handling the serial port, and partly due to the use of the timer. I was waiting for the timer to reach the value 32, writing the bit, and then resetting it. I changed it so I didn't have to modify the timer counter value.

I would write the first bit when the counter reached 16, then the next when it reached 48 (16+32), and the next when it reached 80 (16+32+32) and so on. Timer2 being only 8-bit rolls over back to zero after the 8th bit, exactly when we needed it to. This meant that as long as we wrote the bit at the required timer value we would be at exactly 500kbps.

I also looked at how I was reading the data from the serial port. This was being read inbetween each bit, but this needed to be as short as possible too. After a little experimentation I achieved the shortest working block.

After modifying the Windows code to support verify I was now ready to try again. This time I knew that if the disk verified properly then it should work properly in the Amiga.

So I tried writing another disk out. With verify it took longer. With the new algorithm about 95% of the tracks passed verification on the first go, with only the reaining 5% having to be re-written once more. I was happy with this and popped the disk into the Amiga. It worked perfectly!


Writing Data - Attempt 6

After some feedback from some people who have been using this it was clear that even with verify on the drive wasn't always producing fully readable disks. The software could read them back perfectly, but the Amiga computers would report of a few checksum errors here and there.

I had another look at the code, wondered if it was a timing issue and looked to see if it could be made to be interrupt driven, but sadly with the small amount of time between each bit there simply isn't enough time with interrupts to achieve this with preserving the registers you modify etc.

I then looked back at the writing code. There is a small chance that after a full byte has written, the code could have looped back to start writing the next byte before the timer had overflowed back to 0, allowing the first bit to be written early.

I added a small loop to ensure this couldn't happen which hopefully will fix this for anyone having this issue.



I have had lots of feedback from people who have successfully made this project, both fully working and not working. I decided I would build a diagnostics module into the code to help anyone who can't get theirs to work.

The diagnostics option consists of a few extra commands for the Arduino to process as well as a whole series of events that get ran through to ensure everything is wired correctly.


Writing Data - Attempt 7

After getting a lot of reports of of checksum errors for written disks I started to investigate. I thought at first I was going to have to get down to looking at the MFM data from the disk but the problem was actually much simpler

Looking at XCopy Pro to see the checksum errors, it reported codes 4 and 6 meaning checksum errors in the sector headers and data areas. If it had just been the data area then I would have assumed that it was purely something to do with writing the last few bits of the track, but it wasn't.

I started looking at the writing code and the padding I had around each track, wondering if I was overwriting the start of a track now and then, so I massivly reduced the post-track padding from 256 bytes to 8. To my suprise my verify then kicked out a tonne of errors.

This made me wonder if the actual issue is I'm not writing enough data. I set about adding a Track Erase command to the Arduino which would write the 0xAA pattern to the entire track and then write my track afterwards. To my suprise XCopy gave it a 100% thumbs up. So hopefully thats cleared that problem up.


So what's been happening?

I've been out of this project for a while. But recently jumped back in to address some issues and merge some of the excellent things that others have done into this.

For example, there is a version that will read Commodore 1581 disks, as well as reading Atari HD disks


So What's Next?

The entire project free and open source under GNU General Public Licence V3. If we want to have any hope of preserving the Amiga then we shouldn't be ripping each other off for the privilege, and besides, I want to give back to the best platform I ever worked on. I’m also hoping people will develop this and take it further and keep sharing.

The current writing solution isn't an option on the Arduino UNO unless you use a seperate FTDI/serial breakout board, so my next tasks are to make it work on that (possibly using the 23K256 IC to buffer the track before writing it to the disk).

I still want to look at other formats. ADF files are good, but they only work for AmigaDOS formatted disks. There are lots of titles with custom copy protection and non-standard sector formats that simply cannot be supported by this format. I have received some very useful information on this but don't currently have many disks to test with.

According to Wikipedia there’s another disk file format, the FDI format. A universal format, that's well documented. The advantage of this format is it tries to store the track data as close to the original as possible so hopefully will fix the above issues!

I also came across the Software Preservation Society, specifically CAPS (formally the Classic Amiga Preservation Society) and their IPF format. After a little bit of reading I was very disappointed, its all closed, and it felt like they were just using this format to sell their disk reading hardware.

So my focus will be on the FDI! format. My only concern here is with data integrity. There won't be any checksums for me to check against to see if the read was valid, but I have a few ideas to resolve that!

If you enjoyed reading this and want to thank me, consider making a donation. Its all free so it's entirely optional